A tidal turbine in-built Scotland is now producing energy in Japan

The AR500 turbine is waiting to be installed in waters off the Japanese islands.

A tidal turbine built and tested in Scotland was installed in waters off a chain of Japanese islands. This is the latest example of the East Asian country studying the potential of marine forms of energy production.

In a statement on Monday, London listed company Simec Atlantis Energy The pilot turbine generated 10 megawatt hours in the first 10 days of operation.

The AR500 turbine was assembled at a factory in Scotland before being shipped to Japan, where it was installed in waters off Naru Island, which is part of the larger Goto Island chain.

According to SAE, the overall project includes the leasing of tidal generation systems and the provision of offshore construction services for the Japanese company Kyuden Mirai Energy.

Graham Reid, CEO of SAE, described the installation as “a major milestone in the use of clean, renewable energy from tidal currents and we hope it will be the first of many tidal turbines installed in Japan”.

Monday’s news is the latest example of companies in Japan, an island nation with thousands of kilometers of coastline, turning to projects dealing with tidal and wave energy.

In January it was announced that the shipping giant Mitsui OSK Lines would work with a company called Bombora Wave Power Scope for potential project locations in Japan and the surrounding regions.

The collaboration between Tokyo-based MOL and Bombora focuses on finding possible locations for the latter’s mWave system as well as hybrid projects combining mWave and wind energy.

In simple terms, the technology developed by Bombora, which has offices in the UK and Australia, is based on the idea of ​​using rubber membrane cells that are filled with air and attached to a structure submerged in water.

According to a video by the company describing how its system works, the “flexible rubber membrane design pumps air through a turbine to generate electricity” when waves run across the system.

The International Energy Agency describes marine technologies as “great potential,” but adds that additional policy support is needed for research, design and development to “enable the cost reductions that come with bringing larger commercial plants up and running”.

For its part, Japan wants renewables to account for 22% to 24% of its energy mix by 2030.

In October last year, Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga said the country would target zero net greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. By 2030, Japan aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 26% compared to 2013.

However, work remains to be done to ensure that the country achieves its goals. In 2019, the Agency for Natural Resources and Energy said the country was “largely dependent on fossil fuels” such as coal, oil and liquefied natural gas.

India might play an vital function in producing vaccines

A medical professional holds Covid-19 vaccine Covaxin vial during the nationwide vaccination campaign in Jaipur, Rajasthan, India, Saturday, February 6, 2021.

Vishal Bhatnagar | NurPhoto | Getty Images

India could become the second largest Covid vaccine maker in the world, and analysts say the country has the capacity to manufacture for both its own people and other developing countries.

Most of the world’s vaccines historically came from India. Even before Covid-19, the South Asian country was producing up to 60% of the world’s vaccines – and at relatively low costs.

“India was a vaccine manufacturing center before the pandemic and should be a strategic partner in vaccinating against COVID-19 worldwide,” JPMorgan analysts wrote in a report last month.

Consultancy firm Deloitte predicts India will rank second after the US in terms of coronavirus vaccine production this year. PS Easwaran, partner at Deloitte India, said more than 3.5 billion Covid vaccines could be produced in the country in 2021, compared to around 4 billion in the US

In addition, companies in India are currently increasing production to meet demand.

“We are expanding our annual capacity to deliver 700 million doses of our intramuscular COVAXIN,” said Indian company Bharat Biotech, which worked with the Indian State Council for Medical Research to develop a Covid vaccine.

Covaxin has been approved for emergency use in India, however was controversial because of criticism that the approval was not transparent enough and because not enough efficacy data was published.

India vaccines suitable for developing countries

Another vaccine – known in India as Covishield and made by AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford – an emergency permit has also been issued in India. It is made locally by the Serum Institute of India (SII).

According to Reuters SII makes around 50 million cans of Covishield every month. and plans to Production increased to 100 million cans per month by March.

Other Indian companies have agreed to make vaccines for developers like the Russian Direct Investment Fund and a US company Johnson & Johnson. To be clear, these vaccine candidates have not yet been approved for use.

“Even without successful vaccine development from our own pipelines, the available capacity offers the opportunity to work as a contract manufacturer with approved vaccine developers in order to meet the supply needs, particularly for India and other countries [emerging markets]”said the JPMorgan report.

With a proven track record on the scale that vaccines are made, India should be able to ramp up production to meet international demand as well.

Nissy Solomon

Center for Policy Research

India’s vaccines are likely to be more suitable for developing countries, said K Srinath Reddy, president of the Public Health Foundation of India.

Some of the currently leading vaccines, such as those from Pfizer– –BioNTech and Modern, Take advantage of messenger RNA (mRNA) technology, which uses genetic material to trigger the body’s own infection control process.

These vaccines require “stringent cold chain requirements” that will be difficult or even “out of the realm of possibility,” for most health systems, Reddy said.

Vaccines made in India are easier to transport and cheaper, putting the country in a better position than the US and Europe when it comes to meeting demand in developing countries, he added.

India’s “proven record”

India’s enormous manufacturing capacity also gives analysts confidence that the country can provide vaccines to other nations.

New Delhi has promised to send vaccines to neighboring countries, and According to Reuters, the country has already shipped 15.6 million cans to 17 countries.

“India’s manufacturing capacity is sufficient to meet domestic demand,” said Nissy Solomon, senior research associate at the Center for Public Policy Research (CPPR).

“With a proven track record of the same scale as vaccines, India should be able to ramp up production to meet international demand as well,” she told CNBC.

Solomon added that the country is monitoring domestic needs before making decisions about exports.

For its part, Bharat Biotech said it was “fully prepared to meet the needs of India and global public health”.

Vaccine storage and distribution challenge

However, there will be challenges as the country attempts to meet vaccine demand in India and beyond.

Jefferies stock analyst Abhishek Sharma wrote in a note that vaccine adoption in India has been slow. Even assuming the speed of vaccination will increase, Sharma estimates that only 22% of India’s 1.38 billion people can be vaccinated in one year.

This is roughly the number of people India wants to vaccinate by July or august.

“The supply of vaccines is less of an issue than the storage, distribution and intake of vaccines,” said Solomon of CPPR.

“India is unable to store and distribute such large quantities to the masses,” she said, adding that the country should “strategically” choose vaccines that do not need to be stored in extreme temperatures.

I would say that [these challenges are] more like speed limiters slowing the program down than actual roadblocks where the program must be stopped.

K Srinath Reddy

Public Health Foundation of India

The vaccines that India is currently making require normal refrigeration, but those of Pfizer– –BioNTech must be kept at extremely cold temperatures of minus 70 degrees Celsius (minus 94 degrees Fahrenheit) while those of Modern must be stored at minus 20 degrees Celsius (minus 4 degrees Fahrenheit).

The “real challenge” lies in the sheer number of people who need to be vaccinated, said Reddy of the Public Health Foundation of India.

“This is the first time an adult vaccination program has been carried out on such an unprecedented scale,” he told CNBC.

He said vaccination programs usually focus on vaccinating children and mothers, and the logistics network may not be prepared to handle vaccines for entire populations.

Reddy suggested using the existing food cold chain for vaccines, hoping this could be resolved.

“I would say that [these challenges are] more like speed limiters slowing down the program than actual roadblocks where the program has to be stopped, “he said.