Novel flight type and lightweight wings increase flight efficiency of tiny beetles

Datenberichterstattung

Es wurden keine statistischen Methoden verwendet, um die Stichprobenumfänge vorher festzulegen. Die Experimente waren nicht randomisiert, und die Forscher wurden während der Experimente und der Ergebnisbewertung nicht hinsichtlich der Zuteilung verblindet.

Material

Adulte Federflügelkäfer (P. placentis (Coleoptera: Ptiliidae)) wurden im November 2017 im Cát Tiên Nationalpark, Vietnam, gesammelt. Die Käfer wurden gesammelt und zusammen mit dem Substrat zu ihrer Sicherheit an das Labor geliefert. Hochgeschwindigkeitsvideoaufnahmen wurden am selben Tag während einiger Stunden nach dem Sammeln gemacht.

Morphologie und Morphometrie

Das Material für morphologische Untersuchungen wurde in alkoholischer Bouin-Lösung oder in 70 % Ethanol fixiert. Die Flügelstruktur wurde unter Verwendung eines Rasterelektronenmikroskops (SEM Jeol JSM-6380 und FEI Inspect F50) nach Dehydratisierung der Proben und Trocknung am kritischen Punkt, gefolgt von Goldsputtern, untersucht. Ein konfokales Mikroskop (CLSM Olympus FV10i-O) und ein Durchlichtmikroskop (Olympus BX43) wurden ebenfalls verwendet, wofür die Proben geklärt und mikroskopische Objektträger hergestellt wurden26 (Ergänzende Angaben). Messungen wurden von digitalen Fotografien in Autodesk AutoCAD-Software in zehn Wiederholungen (sofern nicht anders angegeben) genommen. Körpergewichte und Gewichte bestimmter Körperteile wurden auf der Grundlage von dreidimensionalen Rekonstruktionen berechnet (Ergänzende Informationen).

Flügelmasse und Trägheitsmomente

Die Volumina des Blattstiels und des membranösen Teils (des Flügels) des Flügels wurden unter Verwendung von bildbasierten geometrischen CLSM-Modellen gemessen. Es wurde eine gleichmäßige Kutikuladichte von 1.200 kg m-3 angenommen27. Die Flügelmasse wurde durch Aufsummieren der Beiträge von Blattstiel, Blattspreite und Borsten erhalten. Um die Masse der Setae zu berechnen, haben wir zunächst ihre lineare Dichte (0,96 μg m−1) unter Verwendung eines dreidimensionalen Modells geschätzt25 und mit der Länge multipliziert. Der Blattstiel und das Blatt des Flügelmodells haben eine konstante Dicke ohne Adern. Ein möglicher Bereich der Membrandicke wurde auf der Grundlage von Messungen bei T. telengai (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, Körperlänge 0,45 mm), O. atomus (Coleoptera: Corylophidae, Körperlänge 0,8 mm) und L. atomus (Coleoptera: Hydraenidae , Körperlänge 1,1 mm), auf 0,5 µm dicke histologische Schnitte, erhalten durch Diamantmesserschneiden unter Verwendung eines Leica-Mikrotoms, nach Fixierung und Einbettung in Araldit. Diese Werte sind die minimalen Dicken, die bei jeder Art gemessen wurden. Die Messungen wurden unter Verwendung eines Olympus BX43-Mikroskops durchgeführt. Der Messfehler der Längenmaße liegt in der Größenordnung von 1 % in Spannweiten- und Sehnenrichtung und 10 % für die Dicke. Die SD der Flügelkutikuladichte25 beträgt etwa 100 kg m−3. Dies deutet darauf hin, dass der gesamte Wurzelsummenquadratfehler der Flügelmassenberechnung etwa 13 % beträgt. Zur Bewertung der Trägheitsmomente wurden die Oberflächendichte der membranartigen Teile und die lineare Dichte der Borsten berechnet. Die Trägheitsmomente der einzelnen Setae wurden mit der Formel für einen dünnen Stab im Winkel und dem Parallelachsensatz berechnet. Die Trägheitsmomente der membranösen Teile wurden mit einer zweidimensionalen Quadraturregel mit dem Diskretisierungsschritt von 50 μm berechnet.

Hochgeschwindigkeitsaufnahme

Der Flug der Käfer wurde in geschlossenen 20 × 20 × 20 mm großen Kammern aufgezeichnet, die speziell aus 1,0 mm dicken Objektträgern und 0,15 mm Deckglas bei einer natürlichen Beleuchtungsstärke im sichtbaren Licht hergestellt wurden. Während der Aufzeichnung befanden sich 20–30 Insekten in der Flugkammer. Zur Temperaturstabilisierung wurde die Flugkammer durch einen Luftventilator von außen gekühlt. Die von einem digitalen Thermoelement gemessene Umgebungstemperatur betrug 22–24 °C; die Temperatur der Flugkammer betrug 22–26 °C.

Hochgeschwindigkeits-Videoaufnahmen wurden mit zwei synchronisierten Evercam 4000-Kameras (Evercam) mit einer Frequenz von 3.845 FPS und einer Verschlusszeit von 20 μs im Infrarotlicht (850 nm LED) gemacht. Die Hochgeschwindigkeitskameras wurden auf optischen Schienen genau orthogonal zueinander montiert und beide im 0°-Winkel zum Horizont positioniert. Zwei IR-LED-Leuchten wurden gegenüber den Kameras und eine Leuchte über der Flugkammer platziert. Eine grafische Darstellung des Versuchsaufbaus findet sich in der vorangegangenen Studie2.

Vermessung der Kinematik

Für die Analyse wurden 13 Aufnahmen ausgewählt. Für vier davon (PP2, PP4, PP5 und PP12) haben wir die Kinematik von Körperteilen in jeweils vier kinematischen Zyklen rekonstruiert und CFD-Berechnungen durchgeführt, da der Flug dieser Exemplare dem konventionellen Schweben besonders ähnlich war: relativ langsamer Normalflug mit horizontaler Geschwindigkeit 0,057 ± 0,014 ms−1 (im Folgenden Mittelwert ± sd) und 0,039 ± 0,031 ms−1 Vertikalgeschwindigkeit (PP2, PP4, PP5 und PP12). In der CFD-Analyse mit dem membranösen Flügelmodell haben wir die Kinematik von PP2 ausgewählt, die die Flügel beim Klatschen nicht kreuzt. Dieser Fall ist geeignet, um die Leistung von Borstenflügeln mit häutigen Ersatzflügeln zu vergleichen, da er garantiert, dass sich letztere nicht schneiden. Der Umfang der Membran wird durch Linien gebildet, die die Spitzen der Borsten verbinden (siehe die vorherige Studie25 für mehr Informationen). Die Beschreibungen von Kinematik und Aerodynamik sowie die Abbildungen beziehen sich auf Ergebnisse, die für einzelne PP2 erzielt wurden. Für die Ergebnisse anderer Proben siehe ergänzende Informationen und erweiterte Daten Abb. 2, 46.

Die durchschnittliche Flügelschlagfrequenz wurde als Mittelwert der Flügelschlagfrequenz in allen Aufzeichnungen berechnet. Bei jeder Aufnahme wurde die Anzahl der Frames in mehreren vollständigen kinematischen Zyklen gezählt, insgesamt 104 Zyklen.

Zur mathematischen Beschreibung der Kinematik der Flügel und Flügeldecken haben wir das System der Euler-Winkel verwendet28,29 (Feige. 2b) basierend auf einer Frame-für-Frame-Rekonstruktion der Position der Körperteile des Insekts (Flügel, Elytra und Körper selbst), die in Autodesk 3Ds Max durchgeführt wurde. Dreidimensionale Modelle des Körpers und der Flügeldecken wurden durch konfokales Mikroskopbildstapeln erhalten, und das flache Flügelmodell basierte auf lichtmikroskopischen Fotos von sezierten Flügeln. Wir haben das starre Flachflügelmodell zur Rekonstruktion der Kinematik verwendet, da die Verformungen der Flügel gering sind (Ergänzende Informationen). Zuerst haben wir Rahmensequenzen mit jeweils vier vollständigen kinematischen Zyklen vorbereitet. Die Rahmen wurden dann zentriert und punktweise zwischen den Basen der Flügel beschnitten und dann als orthogonale Projektionen platziert. Virtuelle Modelle von Körperteilen wurden in ein Koordinatensystem mit zwei Bildebenen gelegt. Dann veränderten wir manuell die Position und drehten Körperteile, bis ihre orthogonalen Projektionen die Bildebenen überlagerten. Zur Berechnung der Eulerwinkel wurde ein Koordinatensystem erstellt (Abb. 2a). Die X0Y-Ebene ist eine Ebene parallel zur Schlagebene und schneidet die Basis des Flügels oder Elytrons, der im Nullpunkt positioniert ist. Um die Position der Strichebene zu bestimmen, haben wir anstelle der linearen Trendlinie die Trendlinie der Hauptachse der Flügelspitzenkoordinaten berechnet29, weil die Flugbahn der Flügelspitze von P. placentis ein breites Streudiagramm bildet. Der Hubabweichungswinkel (θ) und der Positionswinkel (φ) wurden aus den Koordinaten der Basis und des Scheitels berechnet. Der Steigungswinkel (ψ) ist der Winkel zwischen der Strichebene und der Sehne senkrecht zur Linie zwischen Basis und Scheitel. Der Körperneigungswinkel (χ) ist der Winkel zwischen Schlagebene und Längsachse des Körpers, berechnet als Linie zwischen der Bauchspitze und dem Mittelpunkt zwischen den apikalen Antennen. Der Neigungswinkel (β) der Strichebene relativ zum Horizont wurde ebenfalls gemessen.

Für die Analyse der Fluggeschwindigkeit haben wir in beiden Projektionen die Verfolgung der Körpermitte (Mittelpunkt zwischen den äußersten Rändern des Kopfes und des Bauches) in Tracker (Open Source Physics) durchgeführt und die momentane Geschwindigkeit und ihre vertikalen und horizontalen Komponenten in jedem Frame berechnet . Die erhaltenen Geschwindigkeitswerte wurden durch Lössanpassung in R (Statistikpaket) gefiltert. Der minimale Abstand zwischen den Flügelblattspitzen während des Bodenschlags wurde ebenfalls berechnet.

Computergestützte Strömungsdynamik

Es wurden Zeitintervalle des Langsamfluges mit einer Dauer von mehr als vier Flügelschlägen ausgewählt. Die Winkel φ, θ und ψ des linken Flügels, rechten Flügels und der Flügeldecken sowie der Körperwinkel χ wurden auf einem einheitlichen Gitter mit der Zeitschrittweite Δt = 2,6 × 10−6 s interpoliert. Durch numerisches Lösen von φ

Charleston Mild Opera Guild returns after 18 months away | Arts & Leisure

After a year and a half since their last show, the Charleston Light Opera Guild returns to the Clay Center this week with “Putting it Together”.

The outdoor show offers a small cast, no costume or set changes, few props and music from 13 of the musical catalog of the Broadway titan Stephen Sondheim.

“It’s a revue, but it spells ‘review’,” said Guild Director Nina Pasinetti.

Putting it Together takes songs from this baker’s dozen shows and dramatically mixes them into a new story.

“If you know the other musicals, you might see the songs in a different light,” she said. “With the plot and theme, the songs in ‘Putting it Together’ may have a different meaning.”

Pasinetti was thrilled not only with the guild’s return to performance, but also with “Putting it Together” as the show presented different challenges for both them and the theater company.

“Putting it Together” was aired off-Broadway in 1993 and featured the return of Julie Andrews to the New York stage. It ran again on Broadway with Carol Burnett in 1999, but Pasinetti said she hadn’t seen any of those shows, which was a little unusual.

“I’ve seen so many shows on Broadway,” she explained.

Prior to COVID-19, Pasinetti made regular trips to New York and to the theaters. Not only is she a lifelong theater fan, the director scouts these shows as potential future guild productions. She pays attention to the Broadway style and look.

“We don’t copy,” she said. “But we definitely respect the original intent.”

With “Putting it Together”, Pasinetti was simply not that exposed. Her research was largely limited to a few YouTube videos and a broad knowledge of Sondheim’s work.

“Sondheim changed the way Broadway ran, and it’s not an easy job to learn,” she said.

But the show suited the guild’s needs, even if it wasn’t exactly what the guild preferred – especially in the summer.

Summer shows can focus on larger casts, with the guild resorting to high school actors and students coming home from college for the summer.

In addition, the light opera guild has not done an outdoor show or revue for decades.

“We did them in the 80s and 70s,” said Pasinetti.

Even so, new circumstances call for new solutions, so the guild chose a musical with just a handful of players that eschewed extras, including dialogue.

Cedrick Farmer, one of the five actors in the musical, said, “It was basically an opera.”

A little trust was involved.

Understudies were not filled. If something happened, if someone got sick, the whole show could have derailed, but Pasinetti said their cast was very conscientious. They followed safety protocols, monitored their health, and wore special masks that made it easier for players to sing until health guidelines said it was okay for them to take the masks off.

Rudi Arrowood said the strict protocols were worth it.

Arrowood played in the guild’s only production in 2020 with “Maria” in “The Sound of Music”.

While Arrowood said she usually takes breaks between shows, it hit her hard not to have a show on the horizon.

“I developed a lot of hobbies in my free time,” she laughs.

When the guild announced that it would be resuming a production in June, Arrowood said it doesn’t care what role she gets as long as she gets a role.

She said, “Sign me up. I play a hay bale whatever. I am super happy to be back. “

Arrowood got the role of Woman # 1.

None of the characters in the musical have names. Arrowood is woman # 1. Chris Terpening plays Man # 1. Christa Navy is woman # 2. Bauer is Man # 2 and Jacob Fleck is Man # 3.

Farmer said it was good to be back too. Last year he graduated from West Virginia State University with a degree in singing. Along with worries about getting sick, the pandemic clouded his musical future.

“It scared me,” he said. “I didn’t know what was going to happen.”

Pasinetti said the guild didn’t get huge castings, but did attract some of the best talent the area has to offer.

Everyone was careful and took the job seriously.

“Nobody canceled. Nobody got sick. I don’t think anyone was late for rehearsals, ”she said. “It just went very smoothly.”

The entire cast was vaccinated as early as possible, Pasinetti said.

“It wasn’t because of the show,” she added. “Everyone was nervous about COVID. Everyone knew someone who had it. “

To display the show outdoors, the guild has enlisted the Clay Center’s Susan Runyan Maier Sculpture Garden, which the arts and science center developed as an outdoor venue.

The sculpture garden also seemed to serve the aesthetics of the piece.

“The characters wear evening attire,” said Pasinetti. “The men are dressed in tuxedos.”

There were concerns about the rain, she said. June weather in West Virginia is routinely fickle. Rain showers, unusual winds, or scorching heat are all possible and nearly impossible to predict weeks or months.

Pasinetti said they have rainy dates for missed shows and, thanks to changes in health guidelines, the ability to move production in-house if necessary.

As the show neared opening night, she said it finally felt like things were getting easier, as if things were getting better, if not entirely normal, than they had been.

The restrictions relaxed and there was a sense of relief.

“The most important thing is that we get back to what we should,” she said. “We’re here to entertain and provide an outlet for artists.”

‘Tunch and Wolf’ stroll this weekend raises cash for Gentle of Life

Former Pittsburgh Steelers lineman Craig “Wolf” Wolfley remembered Thanksgiving Day in the 1980s. His friend and teammate Tunch Ilkin invited Wolfley to serve turkey and all the trimmings Life of Life rescue mission on the north side of Pittsburgh.

“There were a lot of fancy dinner parties and galas that I thought we could volunteer, but Tunch insisted I join him at Light of Life,” said Wolfley. “I will never forget the moment when I walked in and saw a mother and a father and two young children. Seeing her broke my heart. It just tore me apart. “

Since then, Wolfley and Ilkin have been supporting Light of Life. They are the faces of the annual homeless walk.

The 19th annual event is Sunday.

Sunday celebrations will take place on the Great Lawn on North Shore Drive on the North Side of Pittsburgh from 11 a.m. to 2 p.m. It’s free and includes food and music. People can donate Here.

Courtesy Light of Life Rescue Mission

Former Pittsburgh Steelers teammates Craig Wolfley (right) and Tunch Ilkin hold up signs thanking the people who support the Light of Life Walk for the homeless. The 19th event is on June 13th.

Wolfley said Ilkin plans to attend Sunday’s event because of his commitment to helping Light of Life. The two chat daily and see each other at least once a week. Last week, Ilkin announced his resignation after 23 seasons from the broadcast booth to focus on his fight against ALS, the debilitating disease that attacks the nervous system.

After her playing days, Wolfley moved to Ilkin on the Steelers Broadcast Team.

“Tunch is my brother,” said Wolfley. “God brought us together 41 years ago. My mother says she has four boys and my sisters call him brother. He fights every day. Tunch is a guy who never gives up, never gives up. “

The entire Light of Life Rescue Mission organization is honored to have Tunch and Wolf as friends for more than 35 years, said Doug Smith, Light of Life development director.

“Since walking through the doors of the Mission, they have continued to bless our organization by volunteering, conducting Bible studies with clients, speaking at chapel services, doing the Tunch & Wolf’s Walk for them

Homeless 19 years ago and a lot more, ”said Smith.

Wolfley said they would have more volunteers than participants for the first walk. The event continues to grow, he said.

The aim is to raise US $ 100,000 for the mission to provide food and shelter for men, women and children affected by homelessness, poverty or addiction.

The money raised will go to the “Thanks a Million” campaign to raise $ 1 million in honor of Ilkin and Wolfley “Tunch & Wolf”, who have supported the organization for 35 years. The funds will help fund the renovation of a building for long-term residential programs.

“Light of Life is a wonderful organization that is changing people’s lives and making a difference,” said Wolfley.

Wolfley said Light of Life provided 377,000 meals in 2020.

“One meal can make a difference in a person’s life,” said Wolfley. “The first Thanksgiving I spent there definitely did it for me.”

JoAnne Klimovich Harrop is a contributor to Tribune Review. You can contact JoAnne at 724-853-5062, jharrop@triblive.com or via Twitter .

Photographer is an artist who collects gentle [Unscripted column] | Leisure

Lavender oil, Jewish bitumen. And a pinhole on a tin board that roughly does the elegant work of the human eye.

On the morning of 1826, a mechanically bent Frenchman gathered them all up, straightened the box from the window over the roof of a dull barn, and invented the picture.

Of all the arts, photography is not to be respected, admired, or pretended to be understood. And I’ve worked with newspaper photographers for almost 40 years.

The photographer’s medium is light, light itself, and what Einstein told us is more realistic than time, but scientists are trying to define it. Shall we call it power? It’s not even clear whether to call it a wave or a particle. As a verbal person, it feels like free fall.

When I wrote a history column in my last newspaper, an old man told me about a forgotten cemetery I knew in the Avondale woods. One day the photographer and I went there, picked him up, and went hunting.

Maybe she knew that, she was suspicious, but it was a beautiful spring day.

The three of us ran around the hill talking about the past. We never found a grave.

However, I remember how intrigued the photographer’s clear eyes were, capturing the light reflected in the car. And I saw her involuntarily turn him to the subject.

In the most realistic profession, she was still an artist. She always looked to both news and art. One of his recordings she took is still somewhere.

I think photographers have as opportunistic an eye as most artists. In a way, they’re all journalists, coldly waiting to be attacked by the light when it turns to magic.

More than painters and poets, they are bound to reality, but supplemented by vigilance that makes them feel animal and beautiful at the same time. I saw clouds running across the field for 30 minutes until they were right behind the tree.

Milky Way

Unrealistic, I expect all photos to act responsibly on the basis of reality. I know I can make fools of people. That kind of authority comes with responsibility, doesn’t it? And recently there are already enough banana peels.

Starry sky observation has been my hobby for a long time, but I see night sky images and digital images online that I have never seen or will never see. The Milky Way in the night sky over the illuminated city.

They are not fakes. The light is really there. The galaxy with its faintly visible dust and star channels rises above the grid of street lamps and office lights.

Your eyes don’t act like the digital camera that took them, so you can only see them in a photo. You can neither set the aperture nor adjust the ISO and shutter speed. There is no Adobe in your head.

The dark skies of our time require patience. You need to stay away from the light long enough for your eyes to be fully open. After resting in the dark for about 20 minutes in the house, you step into a landscape with no light under the clear night sky. Heaven sings you Gloria.

Many people living today have never seen it. Since our ancestors left trees in the vast Serengeti, its sights and wonders are likely the starting point for all human speculation.

Arranging the scene for modern teenagers? “That’s it? The internet is looking better. Can I have my cell phone now?”

The writer follows the words and the photographer follows the light. From the 1826 Vernier bitumen photograph (which, if it contained geese and pigs, went back and forth during exposure time to erase itself) to the digital display of the spanned galaxy of light. This inner unity is the reason why photography is an art. To us.

Artists collect light mechanically or digitally. Reality has already been cut out and bypassed. The photographer chose this time, this point, this angle and the frame of the lens. The photographer then more or less changes the collected light and turns it into an art. It wasn’t a reality before the lens clicked.

“Unscripted” is a weekly entertainment column produced by the author’s rotation team.

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Source link The photographer is an artist who collects light [Unscripted column] | entertainment

Demi Lovato’s documentary shines a lightweight on substance abuse within the leisure trade

Demi Lovato plays the national anthem before the San Francisco 49ers battle the Kansas City Chiefs ahead of Super Bowl LIV at Hard Rock Stadium in Miami Gardens, Florida on Sunday, February 2, 2020. (Al Diaz / Miami Herald / TNS)

American singer, songwriter and actress Demi Lovato uses her platform to highlight the realities of the entertainment industry and her own struggles in the spotlight.

Lovato premiered her four-part documentary Demi Lovato: Dancing With The Devil on YouTube on March 23, which featured two-week episodes detailing her experiences of substance abuse, including her life-threatening overdose in 2018. Bailey Perkins, a second year in the pharmacy and a director of the Ohio state’s Generation Rx Collaborative, a student organization focused on drug safety, prescription drug abuse and abuse, and prevention tactics, said anyone could take something away from this documentary.

“Demi Lovato is a great role model, and I think her addiction story is incredibly powerful and insightful for many people,” said Perkins. “There are numerous famous people struggling with addiction, but many people still choose to use substances. That’s because you don’t choose to. “

The first episode, “Losing Control,” touches on Lovato’s experience of substance abuse, eating disorders, and details regarding the night of her overdose. The finale “Rebirthing”, which aired on April 6th, focuses on Lovato’s journey with her sexuality, her new album, and cannot be defined by her near-death experiences.

According to Perkins, the Drug Abuse and Mental Health Agency has a 24-hour emergency hotline at 1-800-662-HELP that can be called anonymously if necessary. She said that US government website is also a good tool as it provides information on how to spot signs of addiction and where to look for help.

As of 2019, almost half of all music videos contain drugs, and according to a. A drinking scene is broadcast on television every 22 minutes report from the American Addiction Centers. Exposure to these images can affect perceptions of drug and alcohol use, according to the AAC.

However, sharing her experience with Demi Lovato, a well-known public figure, has the potential to help people in the same situations, said Rachel Toelke, a sophomore health and inclusive health student and mental health attorney.

“Sometimes celebrities are seen as perfect and flawless in every way,” Toelke said. “It can be a really comforting act for students to see someone they may have opened up as an idolater. You can feel validated in your experience by telling your own story. “

According to the National Rehabs Directory of the American Addiction CentersThe entertainment industry gives celebrities little room for self-care and offers limited information on substance abuse prevention. A lack of resources and personal space can potentially cause celebrities to break down.

Eric Wandersleben, director of media and outreach for the Ohio Department of Mental Health, said the Ohio State Collegiate Recovery Program is a good tool for students struggling with mental illness or addiction. You can find information about the organization on their website.

Wandersleben said the Ohio toll-free Careline is available at 1-800-720-9616 for those seeking help or information related to mental illness and addiction. The Franklin County Alcohol, Drug and Mental Health Board is also available for local prevention, treatment, and recovery programs at 614-224-1057.

Jacksonville ‘Mild the Metropolis’ trip raises cash for legislation enforcement

JACKSONVILLE, Fla. – Dozens of motorcyclists were escorted by Jacksonville police officers during the 16th annual trip “Light the City” Friday night.

The ride began at the Adamec Harley Davidson on Baymeadows Road and will benefit the Legacy Law Enforcement Foundation, which will fund motorcycle training.

HAPPEN NOW: Despite the rainy weather, many people came to Adamec Harley Davidson for the annual Light the City Ride.

This drive is accompanied by the police and all donations go to the Legacy Law Enforcement Foundation. pic.twitter.com/T23J73grto

– Brie Isom (@BrieIsomWJXT) April 16, 2021

Mark Adamec, owner of the Harley dealer, says the ride is especially important this year because of recent accidents.

“We’re working very hard to make sure the bikes have the right lights so they can be seen better,” he said.

Adamec says people should avoid driving in the middle of the night.

“Like noon to 4 in the morning – this is not the time to ride a motorcycle,” he said.

Of the crashes reported in the Jacksonville area this week:

Thursday evening A motorcyclist was hospitalized with a life-threatening head injury after a crash on Lane Avenue.

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On Wednesday evening Two people on a motorcycle were hospitalized after bumping into a wall and falling over the ramp on the Acosta Expressway.

On Tuesday morning, A motorcyclist was in a wreck on I-95 near the Fuller Warren Bridge. He later died of his injuries as a hospital.

On Monday evening, A motorcyclist was killed in an accident on E-Town Parkway near State Road 9B.

Before the ride began on Friday night, some JSO officers went through some important safety tips.

Glenn Morningstar, the president of the Legacy Law Enforcement Foundation, says he always wants these rides to be safe and better motorcycle rider training.

display

“In no way would we get these riders out of here if we felt it was unsafe,” said Morningstar.

The Ride With City Lights will benefit the Legacy Law Enforcement Foundation, which “supports law enforcement by providing education, training, equipment and technology to reduce crime, increase the safety of officials, and create better relationships with the community and with others Our community provides support to their mission to protect and serve the citizens. “

Copyright 2021 by WJXT News4Jax – All rights reserved.

Historical Copper Findings Shed Gentle on Origins of Cash

Copper objects discovered in Central Europe represent the earliest known standardized currency and point to the earliest origins of money.

According to a study published in PLOS One on Wednesday, the currency was standardized thousands of years ago. (Photo credit: MHG Kuijpers via Courthouse News)

(CN) – During the Bronze Age, the beginnings of modern society began to emerge: the use of tools expanded, agriculture replaced wild food, and humans developed systems for dealing in money.

The practice of using money dates back to Europe’s early Bronze Age, which ran from 2150 to 1700 BC. Lasted. This revealed a new analysis of thousands of standardized copper objects discovered north of the Alps.

The researchers described the object shapes as rings, ribs and ax blades and performed statistical analysis to assess the evenness of the size of each object.

Although the weights of the objects were different, about 70% of the rings – and subsets of the ribs and ax blades as well – were indistinguishable to people who weighed them by hand, indicating that they were used as currency.

Each ring weighed approximately 195.5 grams, but the uniformity was adjusted by pouring the metal into molds rather than assigning a target weight to each ring.

The researchers describe and compare each of the more than 5,000 objects and present their results in a study published on Wednesday in PLOS ONE magazine.

Maikel HG Kuijpers, Assistant Professor of Archeology at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands, led the study of the “oldest known form of money from prehistoric Europe”.

Before coins, the objects were “commodity money,” Kuijpers explained in an email. Their value came from the copper material itself, rather than having a specific value assigned to each shape.

As human civilizations expanded during the Bronze Age, materials like bronze and copper “helped this development,” Kuijpers said, especially because the metals could be poured into molds to make many copies of a particular shape.

In addition to being money, bronze and copper have changed the way societies perceive values. Kuijpers remarked: “Materials help us think!”

The new paper regulates a discussion about whether the copper objects were really some kind of protocurrency, as some previous research had suggested.

“There was a lot of discussion, but we lacked a suitable method to test this idea,” said Kuijpers, adding that the new publication “provides clear evidence that it is commodity money.”

Kuijpers and colleagues used a principle of psychology called the Weber faction to determine that a person who weighs the rings and ribs by hand will not be able to tell the difference between the two. (Without scales, it was probably only possible to weigh by hand.)

The team determined that the axes were likely a regional currency. They appear to be compatible with rings and ribs, which are often discovered or joined together.

The researchers describe more than 5,000 objects, including copper ribs, which were used as currency in the early Bronze Age. (Photo credit: MHG Kuijpers via Courthouse News)

Rings and ribs were already a thing of the past by the end of the Early Bronze Age. They were replaced by scrap metal and pieces of cake. When the first scales were created in Western Europe during the Middle Bronze Age, currency standardization became even more accurate.

Thousands of years later, money itself has certainly not gone out of style. When researchers learn more about the origins of the currency, they can understand the important role money played in humans, from early civilization to the dawn of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies.

Copper currency research is part of a project to investigate a particular practice across ancient Europe: valuables were buried like bronze objects or thrown into rivers that were later discovered by researchers.

Kuijpers examines this systematic destruction of precious metals in order to better understand ancient cultures and how the destruction of these objects could have created their value.

“So,” he said, “let’s look at a society with an economy that looks both familiar and unfamiliar.”

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