Alteronce Gumby on How His Expansive Fashion Attracts Inspiration From Each Picasso and Music Sampling

This article is part of a series of interviews by Folasade Ologundudu exploring the evolving conversation about abstract art among Black artists across different generations.

 

Alteronce Gumby has had quite a year.

After closing his highly successful dual-site exhibition, Somewhere Under the Rainbow/The Sky Is Blue and What Am I,” this past summer at False Flag and Charles Moffett galleries, the Yale-trained painter released his first monograph, Colour Is a Beautiful Thing, with contributions by star-making figures Antwaun Sargent and Ashely James, chronicling Gumby’s experimentations in color, form, and texture.

Gumby’s dynamic abstract paintings are rich with context, and Colour Is a Beautiful Thing presents the artist’s musings on the ways in which we interpret and perceive color. Much of Gumby’s work centers around color theory, African American culture, and the history of tonal painting. 

In Miami for the 2021 art fairs, the artist also participated in Nicola Vassell Gallery’s first Art Basel presentation, “Color Vaults,” an intergenerational dialogue between Fred Eversley and Gumby about abstraction. While the two artists differ widely in their approach to art-making, each subverts assumptions of color and perception. 

In a recent interview, Gumby shared with me his thoughts on the importance of leaving a legacy, the ways in which people make assumptions about his work as a Black abstract painter—and why he has one eyebrow raised at the art world and the newfound success of Black artists. 

 

Talk to me about your upbringing. Where are you from? What are some of the experiences that shaped you as an artist in your formative years?

I was born and raised in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. I’m the youngest of five. My mother was a minister so I grew up in a church, which definitely made me more aware of my spirituality and believing in things that aren’t seen. I have a lot of faith in my work and my practice.

That may also tie into my fascination with the cosmos. That’s another thing that we as human beings kind of believe is there—but very few of us have actually left this planet. When I look at Rothko, Ellsworth Kelly, Stanley Whitney, or Alma Thomas, I feel as if they’re relating to not only the physical world but also to a spiritual or subconscious level of thinking that is intangible.

I didn’t grow up in an artistic family. I feel like my whole life I’ve been searching for the person that I want to be. As artists, you kind of come to this realization, when you’re working in your studio, that you’re not only trying to figure out a painting; you’re trying to figure out who you are as a human being. 

Installation view of Alteronce Gumby, ” Somewhere Under the Rainbow / The Sky is Blue and What am I” at Charles Moffett Gallery. Image courtesy Charles Moffett Gallery.

I’m always interested in how artists come to the art world. What were some of the experiences that led you to pursue art-making as a career? 

I was 19 and studying architecture in Harrisburg. A study abroad program came up and I begged my mom and dad to fund me on the trip to Spain.

On the first day in Spain we were on a walking tour of Antoni Gaudí and I was really into the way he thought outside the box in terms of architecture. After that, we had free tickets to go to the Picasso Museum. Before that I had never stepped foot inside of an art museum, and didn’t have a reference for who Picasso was or the impact he had on art and culture. I was mesmerized and taken by his vision for the world and the progression through his artistic practice.

I came back from that trip telling all my friends about Picasso. I actually dropped out of architecture school and moved to New York City!

From that moment, I started having a growing interest in art. A show at the MoMA really opened my eyes to abstraction, to painting, to the New York School. I fell in love with abstract painting. That was the moment I told myself I would like to go back to school to study art. It was at Hunter College, working on my BFA, that I began meeting with artists like Rashid Johnson and Stanley Whitney. I decided that I wanted to pursue a career as an artist.

Installation view of Alteronce Gumby, ” Somewhere Under the Rainbow / The Sky is Blue and What am I” at False Flag. Image courtesy False Flag.

What experiences did you have coming into contact with and learning about Black abstract artists in school?

When I was at Hunter College, there wasn’t a lot of teaching about Black abstract artists. I wasn’t seeing any artists in the market that looked like me. In our history class the closest thing you got to abstraction was Basquiat.

I asked one of my professors if there were any contemporary Black abstract artists I could check out and she told me about Jack Whitten, Frank Bowling, Howardena Pindell, Alma Thomas, Stanley Whitney, Mark Bradford. I started seeking these people out. It got to the point where I just started running into them at openings in Chelsea and started asking them if I could go to their studios. From there a kind of mentorship developed. It wasn’t until I got to Yale that I took an Afro-Modernism class. 

You’ve often described your artworks as vehicles for travel—most specifically, as spaceships. Why are you interested in this element in your work? What are the larger underlying ideas that you’re trying to work through or bring to life?

I grew up in Central Pennsylvania. It’s a driving culture. Freedom for a teenager who grew up in that type of environment was when you got your own wheels. You could do whatever you wanted within that vehicle. When I’m working on a painting, I’m interested in ideas that lead me to a sense of freedom, whether it’s physically, spiritually, or mentally.

Installation view of Alteronce Gumby,

Installation view of Alteronce Gumby, ” Somewhere Under the Rainbow / The Sky is Blue and What am I” at Charles Moffett Gallery. Image courtesy Charles Moffett Gallery.

You’ve talked about the importance of “the unknown.” How do elements of the unknown influence you and the way you work, create, and come up with ideas?

The idea of the unknown keeps me on my toes. It keeps things fresh—not necessarily knowing what’s going to happen when I put two materials together keeps this dimension of playfulness and experimentation alive in a studio. I like that.

Every artist who was an innovator in their craft had to think outside of the box with a sense of curiosity behind their practice so that they actually got to a place where they were in uncharted territory, where they were putting these formulas and equations together.

And they had to have this sense of curiosity about them to keep moving forward and to keep a sense of hunger and curiosity behind their practice so that they actually got to a place where they were in uncharted territory formulating equations together.

How did you arrive at abstraction as a form of creativity? 

When I came to New York I ended up going to school for audio production and recording. They trained us so that we could walk into any recording studio and mix music. I grew up listening to nothing but straight R&B and hip-hop and gospel music. That was the first time I listened to the Rolling Stones, to the Beatles. And it was the first time I listened to a lot of jazz.

Listening to all these various genres of music I found references from samples of hip hop songs. I noticed that there was actually a combination of a lot of different genres of music in hip-hop.

So when it came to thinking about abstraction, I could look at a Rothko or a Pollock and I could see Rembrandt, jazz, nature, past memories, future manifestations. My imagination ran wild. I felt like abstraction was limitless. It allowed me to evoke all these various experiences within one object.

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<p class=Alteronce Gumby,
Amazing Grace (2021). Image courtesy False Flag.

What function does abstract art play in your life? How does the medium itself serve a function and or purpose in your life to communicate ideas?

Abstraction allows me to think outside the box and have perspectives on a world other than the one I can see, feel, touch, taste, and smell. It opened another way to experience the world. And I’m trying to exercise that sensibility. And I think that, already in my practice within my studio, I’m not necessarily trying to just use the traditional way of thinking about an abstract painting, but to kind of solve an abstract painting.

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<p class=Alteronce Gumby, Amazing Grace (2021) [detail]. Image courtesy False Flag.

Do you think that is there anything problematic about the hotness of Black art, whether figurative or abstract right now?

Now you see more and more Black artists coming out of school who are hot to the market. I think the visibility is good, but I do have my suspicions about the surge of Black figuration. There were moments I felt pressured to maybe make figurative paintings because I’m a Black person. But I really wanted to stick to my love for what got me involved in art to begin with. I think everyone who is a Black artist right now having success in the art world, I think it’s a great thing—but I do question the market’s motive behind it.

What are some of your thoughts about what’s behind the rise in popularity of Black artists? Why are there such skyrocketing prices for Black art on the secondary market?

I think, historically, everything we’ve touched has turned to gold. Everything Black people touch to turns to gold. I think we’re just magical beings that way. And I think that the art market at large knows that anything Black people innovate and make hot is in some way, shape, or form going to turn a profit.

The market is correcting itself historically for the exclusion of Black artists from the canon. The Black Lives Matter movement and other social justice movements have influenced the art world as much as in has every other industry. I’m happy to see that all the Black talent that was overlooked because of racism is now getting its due today.

Alteronce Gumby, <em>Purple Rain</em> (2021). Image courtesy Charles Moffett.” width=”1024″ height=”1024″ srcset=”https://news.artnet.com/app/news-upload/2021/12/alteronce-gumby-purple-rain-1024×1024.jpeg 1024w, https://news.artnet.com/app/news-upload/2021/12/alteronce-gumby-purple-rain-150×150.jpeg 150w, https://news.artnet.com/app/news-upload/2021/12/alteronce-gumby-purple-rain-300×300.jpeg 300w, https://news.artnet.com/app/news-upload/2021/12/alteronce-gumby-purple-rain-32×32.jpeg 32w, https://news.artnet.com/app/news-upload/2021/12/alteronce-gumby-purple-rain-50×50.jpeg 50w, https://news.artnet.com/app/news-upload/2021/12/alteronce-gumby-purple-rain-64×64.jpeg 64w, https://news.artnet.com/app/news-upload/2021/12/alteronce-gumby-purple-rain-96×96.jpeg 96w, https://news.artnet.com/app/news-upload/2021/12/alteronce-gumby-purple-rain-128×128.jpeg 128w, https://news.artnet.com/app/news-upload/2021/12/alteronce-gumby-purple-rain-256×256.jpeg 256w, https://news.artnet.com/app/news-upload/2021/12/alteronce-gumby-purple-rain-434×434.jpeg 434w, https://news.artnet.com/app/news-upload/2021/12/alteronce-gumby-purple-rain.jpeg 1500w” sizes=”(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px”/></p>
<p class=Alteronce Gumby, Purple Rain (2021). Image courtesy Charles Moffett.

Who are some of the artists who’ve inspired you? What is it about them, their practice, their way of thinking that really speaks to you?

Rauschenberg, Rothko, Jack Whitten, Picasso. I think all of these artists were really innovative. They were doing something different. They seem to be habitual risk-takers in their studios and practice and it shows in the work. 

For Picasso to do Cubism with Braque—it was a really a way of changing style and looking at the world. Rauschenberg was taking discarded objects from the streets of New York and bringing collage into his paintings. Jack Whitten created his own tool for making a mark. Mark Bradford is another person who uses objects from the streets.

These people were outside thinkers, they weren’t just taking paint out of a tube and a brush and going back to this academic way of thinking of how to make a mark or how to make a painting

To me, [encountering these artists] was almost like coming across like an alien language or looking at hieroglyphics. You can tell it’s manmade but it speaks with this sense of otherness.

That’s something I strive for within my practice: Trying to develop this language for myself to speak to the world.

Installation view of Alteronce Gumby,

Installation view of Alteronce Gumby, ” Somewhere Under the Rainbow / The Sky is Blue and What am I” at Charles Moffett Gallery. Image courtesy Charles Moffett Gallery.

Can you talk to me a little bit about your experience at Yale? Talk to me about the critique process, and being a Black artist in a historically segregated white space. What was that like for you?

You trying to get the juice! Yale was definitely an experience. You know, there were only a handful of us, artists of color, there. It definitely wasn’t easy being a Black man in a very white space. I will say at Yale, I had an intention in mind going in, of what I wanted from graduate school, and I just kept that intention through my two years there.An

The world was an interesting place back then. The killings of unarmed Black people at the hands of police didn’t help in terms of mental health. The school held town halls and brought in specialists to help guide conversations around race and diversity. The curriculum was changing, the university as a whole was changing, and I was trying to find myself and evolve as an artist at the same time. Overall it was a great learning experience for me.

There were definitely moments where people were putting their own personal perceptions of me as a Black man onto my work and I had to develop a thick skin for how people were talking about my work. But through those conversations, I realized that abstraction, color, and materials is the language through which I speak. 

Alteronce Gumby.

Alteronce Gumby.

Earlier in the interview, we talked a little bit about Black artists who are having a lot of success in their careers right now, but wanting to remain critical about the work at large. So I wanted to ask you about your monograph. It’s your first piece of published work and it features essays by Antwaun Sargent and Ashley James. How did the monograph come to life? 

I interviewed Stanley Whitney for Bomb magazine. And I remember asking him, “why aren’t there more Black artists working abstraction?” It seemed like when I was in school, there was not as much text about their story, their contribution. So I asked him and he pointed me to the oral history project that was apart of the Smithsonian. They had interviewed a few Black artists like Jack Whitten, Sam Gilliam, and Alma Thomas. 

They were all oral histories. I felt like that aspect of keeping records of one’s story, especially as an artist, especially as a Black artist, is something that’s needed. I wanted to make sure that my history, my story, and my work were being recorded. And I didn’t want to wait for another institution or someone else to come along and give me that opportunity. I wanted to take that power into my own hands.

My monograph came about working on a show with Charles Moffett and False Flag, as a part of that collaboration. It outlines six years of my practice, focused on painting specifically. I wanted to focus on painting for this edition, leaving room for other monographs to be created in the future.

So you’re saying the monograph was made intentionally with a focus on painting so that other books could focus on other parts of your practice?

It leaves the door open. I was at the Jasper Johns retrospective at the Whitney, and as someone who likes to grab the catalogue, I’m in the bookstore and they show me basically an encyclopedia—they have five volumes of Jasper Johns paintings! It’s like a box set. Then there’s another five volumes of Jasper Johns drawings. And then there is another five volumes of Jasper Johns sculptures or prints. And I’m like, “are you shitting me right now?” I think that record that he’s leaving behind that’s so important. 

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ESPN Monday Night time Soccer Raiders-Ravens opener attracts 15.three million

Quarterback Lamar Jackson # 8 of the Baltimore Ravens throws the Las Vegas Raiders in the first half of their game at Allegiant Stadium on September 13, 2021 in Las Vegas, Nevada.

Chris Unger | Getty Images

The National Football League finished the first week of their 2021 regular season with an average of 15.29 million viewers via ESPN channels, including the ABC Network, for the Monday Night Football opener between the Las Vegas Raiders and Baltimore Ravens.

The Raiders defeated the Ravens 33-21 in a multi-twist back and forth dubbed game to complete Week 1. and San Diego.

The 2020 MNF competition between the New York Giants and the Pittsburgh Steelers drew an average of just 10.76 million viewers. Since the pandemic plays a role, that game was down about 17% compared to the first game of ESPN’s week 1 double header of 2019 that featured and averaged the New Orleans Saints and Houston Texans 13.2 million viewers on ESPN channels.

On Monday, ESPN also debuted its alternative MegaCast with Peyton and Eli Manning commenting on the Raiders-Ravens game on his ESPN2 channel. The show drew 800,000 viewers. The Manning brothers co-signed a three-year contract Disney-Own ESPN where the couple share their thoughts and breakdowns in-game during the NFL season.

Cleveland Browns running back Nick Chubb (24) finds a gap in the line against the Kansas City Chiefs on September 12 at GEHA field at Arrowhead Stadium in Kansas City, Missouri.

William Purnell | Sportswire icon | Getty Images

In the meantime, the national NFL game is on Sunday ViacomCBS averaged with the Cleveland Browns and Kansas City Chiefs 19.53 million viewers. It was the most-watched national game on the opening weekend on CBS since the 2015 opener between the Ravens and the Denver Broncos (23.28 million viewers).

Fox Sports’ average of 16.23 million viewers for the national game Green Bay Packers vs. New Orleans Saints. That’s less than last year’s national opener between the Saints and Tampa Bay Bucs, which featured a star quarterback match between Drew Brees and Tom Brady and averaged 25.8 million viewers.

The network kicked off the NFL kick-off after drawing 7.7 million viewers for its Saturday game between Oregon and Ohio State College.

The NFL began its 102nd season last Thursday with an average of 26 million viewers for the Tampa Bay Buccaneers vs. Dallas Cowboys competition. NBC said the game peaked between 9:45 p.m. and 10:00 p.m. ET with 25.4 million viewers on television. The kick-off in 2021 marked a 20% increase in total viewers compared to last year’s NFL kickoff with the Chiefs and Texans.

Overall, the NFL stated that the combined first week games had an average of 17.4 million viewers and totaled “approximately” 100 million viewers across all games.

Disclosure: NBC Sports, which parent company NBCUniversal shares with CNBC, broadcasts NFL games.

Our view: 2nd District election for state senator attracts curiosity and cash | Newest Headlines



MP Vince Mazzeo, D-Atlantic, left, and State Senator-elect Vince Polistina, R-Atlantic are the contestants in one of the most competitive and watched legislative races this fall.

When Senator Chris Brown announced that he would not run for re-election, those who followed the policy knew immediately that competition for the open seat would be intense and therefore a lot of money would be spent to win it.

Even so, South Jersey Democratic leader George Norcross was shocked to raise and spend $ 5 million on a contest in Atlantic County. That’s more than a third of what the Democrats spent on all legislative competitions in 2019.

The Norcross money will go to MP Vince Mazzeo, D-Atlantic’s campaign for the Senate seat of the 2nd, left by Brown. His opponent, Vince Polistina, a former Republican MP for the district, said the New Jersey Democrats would always be Republicans surpass, but he was surprised that so much money was announced so early. Polistina said he and his party had the resources to campaign effectively.

Partisans often think that money is a problem in politics when their enemies have more of it. Spending is useful in a campaign, no question about it, but increasing it leads to a decreasing return at a certain point. And funding is only one factor, and often not the most important. Campaigns that are expected to be successful can receive money from groups and people trying to support the winner. Well-funded campaigns often fail to change voters’ minds.

Consider the recent efforts of the New Jersey Education Association. In 2017, they were among the stakeholders who spent millions on Phil Murphy’s behalf. But the former Goldman Sachs financier was not short of money, and his contest ended with the highest spend since the record election for his Goldman Sachs predecessor, Jon Corzine.

BBC protection of Philip’s dying attracts report complaints | Leisure

LONDON (AP) – The BBC’s coverage of the death of Prince Philip has generated nearly 110,000 public complaints, making it the UK’s most objectionable television program

The station released its regular shows on two television channels on Friday to launch a series of special programs after Queen Elizabeth II’s husband passed away at the age of 99. Popular shows like “EastEnders” and the cooking contest show “Masterchef” have been postponed and replaced with news broadcasts and recorded honors, and the BBC Four channel has been completely taken off the air.

BBC radio stations also broadcast programs on Philip.

The BBC said in a statement Thursday that Philip’s death was a “significant event that attracted great interest both nationally and internationally,” but acknowledged that some felt the rolling coverage was excessive.

“We acknowledge that some viewers have been unhappy with the level of coverage and the impact this has had on the television and radio programming that is billed,” she continued. “We don’t make such changes without careful consideration and the choices we make reflect the role the BBC plays as a national broadcaster in moments of national importance.”

The company also received complaints about its decision to include Prince Andrew in its tribute coverage despite his association with U.S. sex offender Jeffrey Epstein. It said it had “handled his comments appropriately”, reported in detail on the allegations against Andrew and made it clear that he had not been charged with any criminal offense.

U.S. Cash Markets Brace for Complications as Debt Restrict Attracts Close to

(Bloomberg) – US dollar denominated finance markets are already facing a myriad of challenges that are distorting supply and demand, and those effects will only intensify as the US government’s legal credit limit returns.

Short-term dollar borrowing rates were cut to zero and below, weighed down by purchases of Federal Reserve assets, drawing on the US Treasury’s huge stash of cash, and a shift from bank deposits to money market funds. The reintroduction of the debt ceiling, suspended in 2019, in late July threatens to exacerbate that dynamic as its return also affects how much cash the Treasury Department can legally hold.

The reinstatement will force the Treasury Department to reduce its cash balance to levels close to the previous suspension, or about $ 120 billion to $ 130 billion from the current $ 924 billion. That would bring more cash to the market and at the same time pull the bill payment offer out of the market.

While JPMorgan Securities strategists Teresa Ho, Alex Roever and Ryan Lessing estimate that the gap between supply and demand is currently around $ 585 billion, there is room for that to widen.

“Too much money”

Either way, there is too much money to buy a home for and not enough products to invest in, and that’s what makes it all tight, “said Gennadiy Goldberg, senior US interest rate strategist at TD Securities. The debt ceiling “will only add to the Treasury headache.”

The longer these idiosyncrasies persist, the more the Federal Reserve will be forced to step in to maintain control over the short end – especially over its central political goal, the federal effective interest rate. The Fed appears to be already taking steps by changing the mechanics of its reverse repurchase agreement facility overnight.

Last month, the Fed instructed the Federal Reserve Bank of New York to raise the counterparty limit on the overnight repo facility (O / N RRP) from $ 30 billion to $ 80 billion. This could help prevent short-term interest rates from sliding any lower. The move was well received, and adoption quickly rose to its highest level in almost a year.

The story goes on

Lorie Logan, executive vice president of the New York Fed, said in a speech on April 8 that the bank could adjust the licensing requirements for its day-to-day operations to allow wider involvement of the fund community.

Adjustments ahead?

Policy makers still have the option to tweak the Fed’s rates on the excess reserve interest rate, the offered level of the O / N EIA, or both. In the minutes of the March Federal Open Market Committee meeting, Chairman Jerome Powell pointed out the potential for downward pressure on money market rates and suggested that it might be “appropriate” to make adjustments at upcoming meetings or even between meetings to ensure that the Fed Funds rate remains “well within target range.”

The latest FOMC minutes suggest that the Fed recognizes that the overnight repo rate is a “more important operational parameter than the IOER is at present,” Wrightson’s ICAP economist Lou Crandall wrote in a note to clients. Wrightson believes that any initial adjustment to the O / N MSRP – and possibly the IOER – would be 2 basis points, while the second choice is a 3 basis point optimization.

The fact that the FOMC “lays the groundwork for a possible adjustment so explicitly” reinforces the belief that the Fed will react faster than in the past to the technical downward pressure on overnight rates, Crandall wrote.

JPMorgan strategists, who said in February that the Fed would not have to make adjustments to their instruments by mid-year, now say policymakers could optimize earlier. You are not alone with such thoughts.

“It is certainly on the Fed’s radar that the pressure is mounting,” said Goldberg of TD. “You want to make sure that the levy at the lower end of the target range is strong enough to stem this cash flow.”

(Updates, including the recent inclusion of the Fed’s streamlined operations in the seventh paragraph.)

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Spanish rapper rejects imprisonment, attracts focus to gag legislation | Arts & Leisure

LLEIDA, Spain (AP) – A rapper in Spain and dozens of his followers locked themselves in a university building on Monday to avoid jail time for insulting the country’s monarchy and praising terrorism.

The case of 32-year-old Pablo Hasél has attracted increasing attention in Spain and has been linked to the government’s sudden announcement that it will amend a national law that restricts freedom of expression. Over 200 artists, including film director Pedro Almodóvar and actor Javier Bardem, signed a petition last week in support of the rapper.

The artist, whose real name is Pablo Rivadulla Duró, will serve a reduced prison sentence of nine months from 2018 for tweets and songs he published between 2014 and 2016. He criticizes the Spanish royal family and praises a now defunct left-wing armed extremist group in Spain.

“I’m not going to let you tell me what to think, feel or say,” Hasél told The Associated Press late Monday. “This gives me an additional incentive to keep writing the same songs.”

Known best for his often radical anti-establishment criticism, he had previously been convicted of assault and praise for armed extremist groups, despite not serving time behind bars after being suspended from a previous two-year prison sentence.

This time his imprisonment seemed imminent. The country’s national court issued an arrest warrant for him on Monday after ten days’ notice, which voluntarily expired on Friday.

But the artist said that he would not leave without showing resistance and drawing attention to his case. On Monday, Hasél barricaded himself, accompanied by around 50 supporters, in the rectorate building of the University of Lleida in northeast Catalonia.

The police require special permission – granted in this case – from the academic authorities to enter university buildings that have been the site of protests in the past.

Defiantly, the rapper tweeted: “You have to break in to take me and put me in jail.”

He told the AP that Monday’s events “were a call to organize our solidarity and ease the pressure on the streets”.

“There is a lot of solidarity from people who understand that this is not just an attack on me,” added Hasél. “But also against our fundamental democratic freedoms. Freedoms that are constantly suppressed by the state. When they are exposed to aggression against us.” We have to give a collective answer. “

The Spanish left-wing coalition government unexpectedly announced last week that it would amend the country’s criminal code to remove prison sentences for freedom of expression violations. Hasél was not explicitly mentioned, nor was there a timetable for the changes.

The proposal is rejected by the conservative opposition party and the far-right Vox party.

Changes to the Code under a new public safety law known as the “Gag Law” were made by the then Popular Party’s government in 2015 and have long been criticized by human rights groups and international organizations for potentially restricting freedom of expression in the name of protection state and religious institutions.

“The imprisonment of Pablo Hasél leaves the sword hanging over the heads of all public figures who dare to criticize the actions of state institutions all the more openly,” says the artist’s petition.

“We understand that if we let Pablo in jail, they could follow either of us tomorrow until they managed to silence a sigh of disagreement,” he added.

Amnesty International’s Spanish branch has also defended Hasél and urged the government to introduce legal changes. In a statement last week, the international rights campaign group pointed to other social media users, journalists and artists who have received similar convictions in the past.

“Expressions that do not clearly and directly incite violence cannot be criminalized,” said Esteban Beltrán, director of the AI ​​branch.

Ciarán Giles and Aritz Parra in Madrid also contributed.

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